Шпаргалка по командам и хоткеям Unix

Submitted by Ромка on Ср, 03/02/2010 - 14:08

Ромка аватар

Стянуто отсюда: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch01.en.html

Хоткеи:



key description of key binding
Ctrl-U стереть тест перед курсором
erase line before cursor
Ctrl-H стереть символ перед курсром
erase a character before cursor
Ctrl-D terminate input (exit shell if you are using shell)
Ctrl-C terminate a running program
Ctrl-Z temporarily stop program by moving it to the background job
Ctrl-S halt output to screen
Ctrl-Q reactivate output to screen
Ctrl-Alt-Del reboot/halt the system, see inittab(5)
Left-Alt-key (optionally, Windows-key) meta-key for Emacs and the similar UI
Up-arrow start command history search under bash
Ctrl-R start incremental command history search under bash
Tab complete input of the filename to the command line under bash
Ctrl-V
Tab
input Tab without expansion to the command line under bash

Команды:

command description
pwd выводит текущую директорию
display name of current/working directory
whoami выводит имя текущего юзера
display current user name
id выводит id текущего юзера
display current user identity (name, uid, gid, and associated groups)
file <foo> выводит тип файла, переданного в качестве аргумента
display a type of file for the file "<foo>"
type -p <commandname> выводит расположение файла, вызывающегося при вводе команды
display a file location of command "<commandname>"
which <commandname> , ,
type <commandname> выводит информацию о команде
display information on command "<commandname>"
apropos <key-word> находит команды, связанные с переданным аргумеентом
find commands related to "<key-word>"
man -k <key-word> , ,
whatis <commandname> display one line explanation on command "<commandname>"
man -a <commandname> display explanation on command "<commandname>" (Unix style)
info <commandname> display rather long explanation on command "<commandname>" (GNU style)
ls list contents of directory (non-dot files and directories)
ls -a list contents of directory (all files and directories)
ls -A list contents of directory (almost all files and directories, i.e., skip ".." and ".")
ls -la list all contents of directory with detail information
ls -lai list all contents of directory with inode number and detail information
ls -d list all directories under the current directory
tree display file tree contents
lsof <foo> list open status of file "<foo>"
lsof -p <pid> list files opened by the process ID: "<pid>"
mkdir <foo> make a new directory "<foo>" in the current directory
rmdir <foo> remove a directory "<foo>" in the current directory
cd <foo> change directory to the directory "<foo>" in the current directory or in the directory listed in the variable "$CDPATH"
cd / change directory to the root directory
cd change directory to the current user's home directory
cd /<foo> change directory to the absolute path directory "/<foo>"
cd .. change directory to the parent directory
cd ~<foo> change directory to the home directory of the user "<foo>"
cd -

change directory to the previous directory

</etc/motd pager display contents of "/etc/motd" using the default pager
touch <junkfile> create a empty file "<junkfile>"
cp <foo> <bar> copy a existing file "<foo>" to a new file "<bar>"
rm <junkfile> remove a file "<junkfile>"
mv <foo> <bar> rename an existing file "<foo>" to a new name "<bar>" ("<bar>" must not exist)
mv <foo> <bar> move an existing file "<foo>" to a new location "<bar>/<foo>" (the directory "<bar>" must exist)
mv <foo> <bar>/<baz> move an existing file "<foo>" to a new location with a new name "<bar>/<baz>" (the directory "<bar>" must exist but the directory "<bar>/<baz>" must not exist)
chmod 600 <foo> make an existing file "<foo>" to be non-readable and non-writable by the other people (non-executable for all)
chmod 644 <foo> make an existing file "<foo>" to be readable but non-writable by the other people (non-executable for all)
chmod 755 <foo> make an existing file "<foo>" to be readable but non-writable by the other people (executable for all)
find . -name <pattern> find matching filenames using shell "<pattern>" (slower)
locate -d . <pattern> find matching filenames using shell "<pattern>" (quicker using regularly generated database)
grep -e "<pattern>" *.html find a "<pattern>" in all files ending with ".html" in current directory and display them all
top display process information using full screen, type "q" to quit

ps aux | pager

display information on all the running processes using BSD style output
ps -ef | pager display information on all the running processes using Unix system-V style output
ps aux | grep -e "[e]xim4*" display all processes running "exim" and "exim4"
ps axf | pager display information on all the running processes with ASCII art output
kill <1234> kill a process identified by the process ID: "<1234>"
gzip <foo> compress "<foo>" to create "<foo>.gz" using the Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77)
gunzip <foo>.gz decompress "<foo>.gz" to create "<foo>"
bzip2 <foo> compress "<foo>" to create "<foo>.bz2" using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding (better compression than gzip)
bunzip2 <foo>.bz2 decompress "<foo>.bz2" to create "<foo>"
tar -xvf <foo>.tar extract files from "<foo>.tar" archive
tar -xvzf <foo>.tar.gz extract files from gzipped "<foo>.tar.gz" archive
tar -xvf -j <foo>.tar.bz2 extract files from "<foo>.tar.bz2" archive
tar -cvf <foo>.tar <bar>/ archive contents of folder "<bar>/" in "<foo>.tar" archive
tar -cvzf <foo>.tar.gz <bar>/ archive contents of folder "<bar>/" in compressed "<foo>.tar.gz" archive
tar -cvjf <foo>.tar.bz2 <bar>/ archive contents of folder "<bar>/" in "<foo>.tar.bz2" archive
zcat README.gz | pager display contents of compressed "README.gz" using the default pager
zcat README.gz > foo create a file "foo" with the decompressed content of "README.gz"
zcat README.gz >> foo append the decompressed content of "README.gz" to the end of the file "foo" (if it does not exist, create it first)

2 Comments

Полезный набор быстрых

Полезный набор быстрых клавиш. По моему, некоторые из них в suse не работают, в третьем гноме.